Методичка Шмотина кафедра
НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ «ОДЕСЬКА ЮРИДИЧНА АКАДЕМІЯ»
Кафедра гуманітарних дисциплін
English for Law Students
(Іноземна мова за професійним спрямуванням)
Методичні рекомендації для студентів I курсу денної форми навчання
УДК [811.111 : 34] (076)
ББК 81.2 Англ.
Методичні рекомендації підготувала
викладач кафедри гуманітарних дисциплін МК НУ "ОЮА"
Шмотіна Олена Владиславівна
Фалько Л. І. - доктор пед. наук, проф. кафедри гуманітарних дисциплін
МК НУ "ОЮА"
Затверджено кафедрою гуманітарних дисциплін
МК НУ "ОЮА"
Протокол № 6 від 24 січня 2013 р.
Методичні рекомендації з англійської мови “English for Law Students” відповідно до програми «Іноземна мова за професійним спрямуванням» для студентів юридичних факультетів вищих навчальних закладів України. Рекомендації містять країнознавчий матеріал про державний устрій Великої Британії, США та України, політичні партії, виборчу систему, а також тексти про систему судочинства, про організацію роботи юридичної професії.
Матеріал поділено на 6 розділів. Кожний розділ містить базовий текст юридичного спрямування, активну лексику до нього, додаткові тексти і лексичні вправи для закріплення прочитаного матеріалу та засвоєння юридичних термінів. Також пропонуються діалогічні ситуації, творчі пошукові завдання та ситуації для обговорення, що допомагає студентам виробити навички розмовної мови.
Рекомендації складаються з 6 розділів: “Політична система”, “Конституція”, “Виборча система”, “Закон і порядок”, “Суди у Великій Британії та США”, “Юридичні професії”. Кожний розділ містить тексти, лексичні вправи, діалогічні ситуації, а також матеріали для обговорення та дискусії. Тексти можна використовувати як для аудиторного, так і для самостійного вивчення. Для вироблення навичок читання, перекладу та переказу юридичних текстів студентам пропонуються різні види вправ, а також ситуації для обговорення.
State and Government of Great Britain
Great Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch — Queen Elizabeth II — as head of the State. Political stability owes much to the monarchy. Its continuity has been interrupted only once (the republic of 1649–1660) in over a thousand years. The Queen is impartial and acts on the advice of her ministers.
The Parliament comprises the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role. The Commons has 650 elected Members of Parliament (MPs), each representing a local constituency. The Lords is made up of hereditary and life peers and peeresses, and the two archbishops and 24 most senior bishops of the established Church of England. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons. Limitations on the power of the Lords — it rarely uses its power to delay passage law — are based on the principle that the House as a revising chamber should complement the Commons and not rival it. The proceedings of both houses of Parliament are broadcast on television and radio, sometimes live or more usually in recorded and edited form. Once passed through both Houses, legislation receives the Royal Assent.
General elections to choose MPs must be held at least every five years. Voting, which is not compulsory, is by secret ballot and is from the age of 18. The candidate polling the largest number of votes in a constituency is elected. In the election of June 1987, when 75 percent of the electorate voted, the Conservative Party gained an overall majority of 101 (Conservative — 375 seats, Labour — 229, Liberal — 17, Social Democratic — 5 and others — 24). In 1988 the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merget and are now Liberal Democrats.
The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. The Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the Government the Prime Minister appoints ministers, of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet — the senior group which takes major policy decisions. Ministers are collectively responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own departments. The second largest party forms the official Opposition with its own leader and “shadow cabinet”. The Opposition has a duty to criticize government policies and to present an alternative programme.
Policies are carried out by government departments staffed by politically neutral civil servants. They serve the government of the day regardless of its political complexion.
Party gained the right to form a Government by winning the general election in May 1997. Mr. Blair, the leader of the Labour Party, became Prime Minister. He selected a team of Ministers to serve in his Ministries.
There is no limit on the size of the Cabinet but the number of salaried Secretaries of state is limited to 21. Cabinet meetings are usually held on a Thursday morning in the Cabinet room at 10 Downing Street.
Parliament in London is responsible for carrying out national policy, but many public services are provided by local government. The United Kingdom is divided into administrative areas known as “counties” and each county has a “county town” where the offices of the local government are located. Local government is responsible for organizing such services as education, libraries, police and fire services, road-building and many others.
monarch — монарх
political stability — політична стабільність
to owe — бути зобов’язаним
monarchy — монархія
continuity — неперервність, нерозривність
to interrupt — переривати
impartial — неупереджений, справедливий
to act on the advice of smb. — діяти згідно з правилами когось
to comprise — включати
the House of Commons — Палата громад
the House of Lords — Палата лордів
to represent — репрезентувати, бути представниками
local constituency — місцевий виборчий округ (виборча кaмпанія)
hereditary — спадковий
peer — пер, лорд
peeress — дружина пера, леді
archbishop — архієпископ
bishop — єпископ
church — церква
rarely — рідко
to delay — затримувати, перешкоджати
to complement — доповнювати
to rival — конкурувати, суперничати
at least — принаймні
compulsory — обов’язковий, примусовий
by secret ballot — таємним голосуванням
majority — більшість
support — підтримка
to appoint — призначати
responsible for smth. — відповідальний за щось
department — відділ, галузь, відомство
opposition — опозиція
“shadow cabinet” — “тіньовий кабінет”
alternative programme — альтернативна програма
authority — влада
to provide — постачати, забезпечувати, доставляти, вживати заходів, передбачати
education — освіта
legislation — законодавство
to carry out — виконувати, втілювати (syn. — fulfil, realize)
to carry out policy — проводити політику
county — графство (Brit), округ (Amer.)
Exercise 1 Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
Exercise 2 Answer the following questions.
1. What kind of country is Great Britain?
2. Who is the Queen of Great Britain?
3. What Houses does the Parliament of Great Britain comprise?
4. What House is the centre of parliamentary power in Great Britain?
5. Is voting compulsory in Great Britain?
6. What are the main Parties in Great Britain?
7. Who appoints the Prime Minister of Great Britain?
8. Who appoints the British Ministers?
9. What party forms the official Opposition?
10. What do the local authorities provide?
Exercise 3. Find English equivalents in the text for:
конституційна монархія, місцевий виборчий округ, електорат, загальні вибори, згода королеви, “тіньовий кабінет”, альтернативна програма.
Exercise 4. Describe the system of government of Great Britain using the following scheme. e.g. :Sovereign — The Queen is the head of the Government. She makes laws with the Parliament.
House of Commons
House of Lords
The System of Government
Exercise 5. Read the text. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the words in bold
type. Translate the text into Ukrainian.
THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
This is the House of Commons where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather benches according to their party and position. From this we get the terms “front benches”, “back benches”’ and “cross benches”.
The two sides, Government and Opposition, sit facing one another. If, for example, you sit in the Public Gallery of the House of Commons, you would see the Government sitting to the left of the table. The Opposition parties would be seated on the right. Government ministers sit on the front bench on the Government side of the Chamber. They are therefore known as Government front-benches.
Those MPs who belong to the same party as the Government but who do not hold a Government post are known as Government back-benches. The Official Opposition is divided in the same way. The Opposition consists of all those parties which, as a result of the last general election, are not part of the Government. It is made up of the Official Opposition, the largest Opposition party and a number of smaller parties. The Labour Party has the largest number of MPs in the House of Commons having won the most seats in the general election of 1997. The party winning most seats in a general election will form a government and the party leader becomes Prime Minister. As the Conservatives won the general elections of 1979, 1983 and 1992, we had a Conservative Government for eighteen years with the party leader, firstly Mrs. Thatcher, and from November 1990 Mr. Major as Prime Minister. There were Labour Governments from 1964–1970, 1974–1979 and since their election victory in 1997 Mr. Blair has chosen a team of ministers to help him, drawn from members of his own party in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Together they make up the Government.
Exercise 6. Complete the following text with the words and expressions given below:
House of Commons
THE WORK OF A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT
The country is divided into 659 voting areas or ___ which each ___ one MP to serve in the ___MPs have to represent all of their ___, regardless of whether they voted for them. In addition MPs have a duty to their political party, to themselves and their own beliefs and to the nation as a whole. Once or twice a week people in a constituency have the chance to meet their ___ when they can talk about their problems, large or small. People may come to their MP with ___ or problems or perhaps someone has a relative in hospital and finds it difficult to get there on public transport. An MP spends time at ___ and during holidays meeting people in local factories, clubs, schools, etc.
The working hours of the House of Commons are very unusual. Most MPs start their day early in the ___ and may not get home until ___ or later.
It is important for MPs to keep up with the ___ — so the first thing they do in the morning is to look through the newspapers to know what has been happening overnight both in this country and ___ MPs often do this over breakfast.
The first thing an MP does after arriving at the House of Commons is to collect his ___ MPs receive huge amounts of mail every day; so reading and answering ___ takes a large amount of time. On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday mornings many MPs will be sitting on Committees. At 2.30 p.m. each day the ___ walks in procession to the Chamber of the House of Commons to begin the day’s ____. The first hour of the afternoon from 2.30 to 3.30 p.m. is Question Time at which most MPs like to be present because they have a chance to ask the money about what it is doing or not doing — and why. They especially like to be present on Tuesdays and Thursdays for Questions to the Prime Minister. From tea time until about 10.00 p.m. there are ___ in the Chamber in which MPs may try to speak, especially if the subjects are of interest to their constituents. Sometimes a MP finally gets to bed when it is nearly time to begin the next day’s work.
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions.
1. Who does an MP represent?
2. How many MPs are there in the House of Commons?
3. What does the job of an MP consist of?
4. What is the equivalent of MPs in Ukraine? What does their work
Exercise 8. Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian.
The head of the United Kingdom is the King, or as at present the Queen. But her power is very symbolic. Everything is done in Queen’s name. But her power is not absolute; it is limited in many various ways.
It is said that the Queen reigns, but does not rule. She personally does not decide what action the state will take. The hereditary principle still operates and the Crown is passed on to the sovereign’s eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons).
The Queen has a central role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers.
Functions of the Queen:
– opening and closing the Parliament;
– approving the appointment of the Prime Minister;
– giving her Royal Assent to bills;
– giving honours such as peerages, knighthoods and medals;
– Head of the Commonwealth;
– Head of the Church of England;
– Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
Exercise 9. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:
1. the head of the state; 2. to reign and to rule; 3. the hereditary principle; 4. the Crown;
5. to approve the appointment of smb.
Exercise 10. Work in pairs. Discussion.
1. Imagine that you are a journalist from Ukraine asking a British student about his feelings for the British monarchy. Discuss the following points:
- functions of the Sovereign; powers of the Queen in Government; the hereditary principle in the UK.
2. Find four arguments for and against monarchy. In the discussion use the following forms of agreement and disagreement:
I quite agree with you; You are right; Certainly; That’s right; I disagree with you; I am afraid you are mistaken; Nonsense; Nothing of the kind.
3. Discuss the following problem.
Some people think that the monarchy should be abolished because it has no power and it costs the state a lot of money to maintain. How useful do you think the monarchy is in Britain today?
Exercise 11. Read, translate and discuss the text.
THE CONGRESS AT WORK
A new Congress session begins on the 3rd of January each odd- numbered year and continues for two years. Many people think that nearly all the 435 Representatives are in the House chamber and the 100 Senators are in the Senate chamber most of the day. They imagine that heated arguments about bills are constantly going on.
But a visitor who watches the House and the Senate in session loses these ideas quickly. Unless the Congressmen are called in to vote for or against a bill, most of them seldom appear on the floor. The visitor usually sees only a few Congressmen there — usually chatting, reading their mail, paying little attention to anyone making a speech.
Congressmen do work long and hard. But most of their work is done in committee meetings. Here bills are studied, experts are consulted, and recommendations are made to the whole House or Senate. During a two- year term of Congress, as many as 20,000 bills may be introduced. Some may be important, some not, but Congressman could possibly know enough about 20,000 bills to vote intelligently on them. Here’s where the committees come in. There are 16 “standing”, or permanent, committees in the Senate and 22 in the House. Each Committee sits and sorts the bills it is responsible for. Because the Congressmen on a committee are ex-parts in that field, they accept and improve some bills, but reject most of them.
Generally Congress goes along with the decisions of its committees. For a bill to become a law it must be passed by both the House and the Senate and signed by President. If President disapproves, he vetoes the bill by refusing to sign it and sends it back to Congress. President’s objections are read and debated, then the bill is put to vote. To overcome President’s veto the bill must get a two-thirds majority in each chamber.
A Committee chairman is the member of the majority party who has served longest on the committee. His job makes him a real power in Congress. Among the standing committees are a Committee of Finance, of Foreign Relations, of Agriculture, of Aeronautical Space Science, of Armed Services, etc. President Woodrow Wilson summed up the importance of the committees when he said, “Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work”.
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