Міністерство науки, молоді та спорту Украйни
Хмельницький національний університет
Eloquence and oratorical gift
Practical guide on improving communicative skills from the discipline “The Bases of Neorhetoric” for the students of the specialty “Translation”
Красномовство та ораторське мистецтво
Методичні рекомендації з удосконалення навичок усного мовлення з розділу практичної риторики дисципліни “Основи неориторики” (Unit II - Practical Rhetoric) для студентів спеціальності «Переклад»
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Eloquence and oratorical gift. Practical guide on improving communicative skills from the discipline “The Bases of Neorhetoric” (Unit II - Practical Rhetoric) for the students of the specialty “Translation”. Красномовство та ораторське мистецтво. Методичні рекомендації з удосконалення навичок усного мовлення з розділу практичної риторики дисципліни “Основи неориторики” для студентів спеціальності «Переклад» / Л.С. Моцна. - Хмеьницький: ХНУ, 2012. - 28 с. (англ.)
Укладач: Моцна Л.С., ст. викладач.
Відповідальний за випуск: Крамар В.Б., канд. філол. н., доц..
Макетування та друк здійснено редакційно-видавничим центром Хмельницького національного університету (м. Хмельницький, вул.. Інститутська, 7/1). Підписано до друку 25.06.2012. Зам. № , тир. 150 прим., 2012.
The practical guide on improving communicative skills from the discipline “The Bases of Neorhetoric” (Unit II - Practical Rhetoric) Eloquence and oratorical gift is intended for the students of the specialty “Translation”.
The practical guide includes exercises on developing oratorical gift and improving communicative skills and covers the most essential items: articulatory and intonation skills training, monologic and dialogic speech in public performance, speech analysis.
Practical rhetoric is both a science and an art of communication. Any literate, cultivated man should acquire at least the major skills of practical rhetoric. The necessity of public communicative performances may arise disregardless the will of the speaker who is supposed to be ready and “prepared”.
This practical guide is of use for the students, whose future profession deals with communication, interpreting, teaching, performing public speeches in front of the auditorium.
We wish you success in communicating with people of different professions, social and age groups.
1. ARTICULATORY AND INTONATION SKILLS TRAINING
Study: Speech sounding is as important as its content. A brilliant speech may lose a lot if it sounds flaccid and inexpressive, with stumbling and speech drawbacks. On the contrary, a speech with poor content sounding phonetically impeccable can make a good impression on the interlocutors. In order to acquire the practical skills of oral speech performance one is supposed to know the bases of diction, intonation, voice peculiarities. The exercises below will help the orator to create a positive image of his speech.
1.1. Breath training exercises
Exercise 1. Inhale and exhale 5-6 times with left and right nostrils by turns.
Exercise 2. Maintain resistance to the air, pressing with your finger onto the left and right nostrils by turns.
Exercise 3. Inhale with your nose slowly pronouncing sound [m].
Exercise 4. Inhale with your nose and exhale with your mouth toughening the muscles of your belly.
1.2. Articulation and intonation training exercises
Exercise 1. Stretch your lips in a smile showing your front teeth.
Exercise 2. Stretch your lips in a form of a tube.
Exercise 3. Open your mouth while smiling.
Exercise 4. Read the tongue twisters. First, pronounce them slowly once, then two times twice faster than the first time, then four times twice faster than the second time.
Bear in mind: Each time every separate tongue twister should be pronounced at the same breath. All the vowels and consonants must be pronounced clearly.
1) How many boardsCould the Mongols hoardIf the Mongol hordes got bored?
2) Denise sees the fleece,Denise sees the fleas.At least Denise could sneezeand feed and freeze the fleas.
3) The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
4) I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won't wish the wish you wish to wish.
5) There was a fisherman named Fisherwho fished for some fish in a fissure.Till a fish with a grin,pulled the fisherman in.Now they're fishing the fissure for Fisher.
6) Luke Luck likes lakes.Luke's duck likes lakes.Luke Luck licks lakes.Luck's duck licks lakes.Duck takes licks in lakes Luke Luck likes.Luke Luck takes licks in lakes duck likes.
7) If Pickford's packers packed a packet of crisps would the packet of crisps that Pickford's packers packed survive for two and a half years?
8) How many cookies could a good cook cook If a good cook could cook cookies? A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies.
9) Mary Mac's mother's making Mary Mac marry me.My mother's making me marry Mary Mac.Will I always be so Merry when Mary's taking care of me?Will I always be so merry when I marry Mary Mac?
10) Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew.While these fleas flew, freezy breeze blew.Freezy breeze made these three trees freeze.Freezy trees made these trees' cheese freeze.That's what made these three free fleas sneeze.
11) Birdie birdie in the sky laid a turdie in my eye.If cows could fly I'd have a cow pie in my eye.
Exercise 5. Pronounce the poems given below with obstacles (stones or candies) in your mouth.
Bear in mind: Put small objects in your mouth and try to speak as if there was nothing in your mouth.
When icicles hang by the wall And Dick the shepherd blows his nail And Tom bears logs into the hall, And milk comes frozen home in pail, When Blood is nipped and ways be foul, Then nightly sings the staring owl, Tu-who; Tu-whit, tu-who: a merry note, While greasy Joan doth keel the pot. When all aloud the wind doth blow, And coughing drowns the parson's saw, And birds sit brooding in the snow, And Marian's nose looks red and raw When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl, Then nightly sings the staring owl, Tu-who; Tu-whit, tu-who: a merry note, While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
When daisies pied, and violets blue, And lady-smocks all silver-white, And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue Do paint the meadows with delight, The cuckoo then, on every tree, Mocks married men, for thus sings he: 'Cuckoo! Cuckoo, cuckoo!' O word of fear, Unpleasing to a married ear. When shepherds pipe on oaten straws, And merry larks are ploughmen's clocks, When turtles tread, and rooks, and daws, And maidens bleach their summer smocks, The cuckoo then, on every tree, Mocks married men, for thus sings he: 'Cuckoo! Cuckoo, cuckoo!' O word of fear, Unpleasing to a married ear.
A Fairy Song
Over hill, over dale,Thorough bush, thorough brier,Over park, over pale,Thorough flood, thorough fire!I do wander everywhere,Swifter than the moon's sphere;And I serve the Fairy Queen,To dew her orbs upon the green;The cowslips tall her pensioners be;In their gold coats spots you see;Those be rubies, fairy favours;In those freckles live their savours;I must go seek some dewdrops here,And hang a pearl in every cowslip's ear.
Exercise 6. Train your intonation. Pronounce the words and word combinations in the quotation marks in the contexts that follow:
- to a friend
- to a neighbor you don’t like
- to a 6 months old baby
- to someone you have just found doing they shouldn’t
- to someone on the phone when you’re not sure if they are still on the other end.
- to a member of your family as they are going through the boarding gate at the airport
- to someone who has been annoying you
- to a child starting his very first day at school.
3) “How are you?”
- to someone you haven’t seen for twenty years
- to someone who has recently lost a member of the family
- to someone who didn’t sleep in their own bed last night
4) “I never go to pubs”
- by a person that totally disapproves of drinking alcohol to someone who often goes to pubs
- as a response to someone who has told you they sometimes go to pubs
- said before: “… but I quite like discos.”
5) “What have you done?”
- to someone who claims to have fixed your television only that now it’s worse than before
- to someone who is scolding you for doing anything when you suspect the same about them
- to someone who has just done something very bad and which has serious consequences.
2. PUBLIC PERFORMANCE
Study: Public performance may be of various forms, the most widespread among which are speeches, lectures, radio performances, lectures-conversations, lectures-dialogues, conferences, discussions, talks, chats, interviews, dialogues. All of these forms of oral communicative performances presuppose the choice of dialogic and monologic or the elements of both forms of communication.
Which of the above mentioned forms of public performance are the most effective? The efficiency of either depends on the purpose and content of communication. Still, there are statistic data showing one forms prevailing over the other. The parameters of the forms efficiency are assimilation of the information by the auditorium, activity and concernment of the auditorium. According to the researches the most effective are lectures-dialogues and small-group discussions.
The conclusion made by the researches are as follows: the more dialogic elements the speech contains the better it is perceived by the auditorium and the smaller the group the more effective communication is.
Any form of public performance has a structure, which is to be followed despite the degree of speech preparation.
2.1. Dialogic speech
Dialogue, in its widest sense, is the recorded conversation of two or more persons, especially as an element of drama or fiction. As a literary form, it is a carefully organized exposition, by means of invented conversation, of contrasting philosophical or intellectual attitudes.
Before you begin writing a dialogue, you will have to do some planning. Think about the following things:
Who will your audience be? If you can build your routine around things that
happen to that group of people, your audience will enjoy your act even more. Talk about activities that your audience does. Try to mention the name of at least one outstanding member of the audience for a personal touch that will make you special to them.
2. Choose a main idea on which to build the dialogue. Try to build it around the audience and the event or holiday.
3. Put your best part last and your second best part first. Fill the middle with quick, fast-paced lines. The figure should have short punchy answers for quick laughs. The figure should get most of the funny lines. The audience wants to hear everything the figure says; so if you want an important point to be remembered, let the figure say it.
4. Your figure could disagree with almost everything you do or say. The bigger the problem, the more the audience will become involved. The solution to the conflict should come to a surprise finish. Make a conflict between you and your partner that is fun to hear.
5. Be aware of the character of your vent figure to make your routine believable. Communicating this to your audience will help them to empathize with your little partner. A ventriloquist has to be a good actor and be aware of two or more characters at the same time.
6. Keep your lines "squeaky clean" so they can be rated G. The only person that should be humiliated or picked on should be you. Think of good, creative, clean jokes that will follow the theme and fit your character's personality. You can change old jokes to fit the situation.
7. Always try to create your own ideas. Never copy another person. You can use a similar idea, but make yours different and better.
8. Many ventriloquists like to end a dialogue with a song. Audiences love to hear figures sing. They don't expect the figure to have a beautiful voice; so if you can't sing well, it doesn't matter. Make the song follow the theme of the dialogue. You can even change the words of a familiar song to make a funny parody.
9. It is extremely important to stay within the performance time given to you. Keep your routine fast paced. Don't let it drag! Try to end your act with your audience wanting more.
10. Have fun and enjoy the compliments!
Exercise 1. You will read one side of a telephone conversation. Make up the dialogic cues to complete the whole conversation.
1. Talking About Your Job
- Hi Peter. It’s Jack. Can you tell me a little bit about your current job?
- First of all, what do you work as?
-- What do your responsibilities include?
-- What sort of problems do you deal with on a day-to-do basis?
- What else does your job involve?
- Do you have to produce any reports?
- Do you ever attend meetings?
- Thanks for all the information, Peter. It sounds like you have an interesting job.
2. Looking for a Bookkeeper
- Have you finished the balance sheets yet?-
- No need to rush. I don't need them until tomorrow morning.-
- Yes, We've been looking, but no luck yet.-
- Oh really, does she have any experience?-
- Great. Ask her to come in for an interview. -
- Oh, I almost forgot to ask ... have you opened the new accounts at Wells Fargo?-
- Thanks. Well, let me know when you finish those balance sheets.-.
3. Holidays with friends
- Hi! Carl? It’s Andy. Yeah. How are you? Feeling better?
- Really? Still using a crutch? So, you’re not back at work yet?
- Two more weeks! That’s when the plaster comes off, is it?
- No. I’m fine. The suntan’s fading, though. Josie’s is, too. She sends love, by the way.
- Yes, yes. I have. I got them back today. They’re good. I didn’t realize we’d taken so many.
- Yes, the sunset. It’s a good one. All of us together on Bob and Marcia’s balcony, with the mountains and the snow at the background. It’s beautiful. Brings back the memories, doesn’t it”.
- Yes, I know. I’m sorry. At least it was towards the end; it could have been the first day. You only came home two days early.
- Yes, we have. Yesterday, in fact. Bob write it and we all signed it. I don’t know if it’ll do any good, but it’s worth a try.
- Sure. Some ups and downs, but generally I think we all got on well and had a great time. Shall we go again next year?
- Good! Great! It’s a date. Next time look out for the trees! I’ll ring again soon, Carl. Take care!
Exercise 2. Suggest another logical exchange to the conversation below, paraphrasing the lines of the dialogue taken from the play “The Hypnotist” by J.R. Parenti.
(Open on Joe's apartment. Joe is sitting on the couch watching TV. The phone rings.)
Joe: Hello...Hi Randi...No, I'm doing much. Actually, I'm watching the Blazers game on TV...Uh, it's almost over. They're losing by 42...Why are you lonely, no date tonight? I thought plenty of guys wanted to go out with you...Come on, there's gotta be at least one guy that's not watching the Blazers game...Why do you want me to come over?...I'm too lazy to walk that far...Maybe tomorrow...
(Enter Charles, Joe's roommate. He's fixing his tie.)
Yeah. I'll call you, maybe. OK? Bye.
(He hangs up the phone. CHARLES can't help but overhear.)
Charles: Who was that, Joe.
Joe: That was Randi from across the hall.
Charles: Did she just ask you to come over? And did you not just decline?
Charles: Are you stupid, Joe? Thousands of guys drool gallons over her every day and she asked for you. Of all people. Come on, Joe. Aren't you the least bit attracted to her?
Joe: (Has to think) Well...honestly, yeah. I am. I guess.
Charles: Well, don't just sit there on the couch like meat loaf. Go talk to her.
(Joe sits, uninterested.)
Come on, Joe. (He gives JOE a nudge.) Go over there.
Joe: All right, all right, I'll go talk to her.
(Charles gives him a wink.)
Talk to her.
Charles: (Excitedly) All right! That's the spirit. And you'll be doing me a favor at the same time...I got the Shelby quintuplets coming over tonight and...we'd like some privacy, y'know.
Exercise 3. Compose your own dialogues in pairs on one of the suggested topics:
1) Yesterday’s birthday party.
2) You are talking about the promotion with your boss.
3) Talk about future presentation of the diploma project with your scientific supervisor.
4) Call to the real estate agency and rent an apartment.
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